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# Vector Data

Vector data processing in GRASS GIS
Vector data import and export
The v.in.ogr module offers a common interface for many different vector formats.

In the features are recorded one by one, with shape being defined by the numerical values of the pairs of xy coordinates.

Vector Data
Vector data comes in the form of points and lines that are geometrically and mathematically associated. Points are stored using the coordinates, for example, a two-dimensional point is stored as (x, y).

provide for high precision in representing the location of features. Aronoff (1989) described how can be used to define the location of a point, a line, and an area.

Vector data model: Divides space into discrete features, usually points, lines or polygons.
Dept. of English & Creative Writing, Bowland College, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YT ...

scale dependency
For all sets, you should always consider the scale dependency of spatial data. When should an airport be represented as a point, and when should it be a polygon?

Vector Data: One method of storing, representing or displaying spatial data in digital form. It consists of using coordinate pairs (x,y) to represent locations on the earth.

The Model
The model is similar in its operation to the join the dots books we all used as kids. An object's shape is represented by dots which are located where the shape of the object changes.

Vector data. These are ordered tuples of real values that represent fields of directions.

model
based on vectors (as opposed to space-occupancy raster structures)
fundamental primitive is a point ...

Vector data composed of simple lines with no topology and usually no attributes. Spaghetti lines may cross, but no intersections are created at those crossings.
spaghetti digitizing
Digitizing that does not identify intersections as it records lines.

Many sets contain features that share geometry. For example, a forest border might be at the edge of a stream, lake polygons might share borders with land-cover polygons and shorelines, ...

World Vector Data
A vector base map for use in XMap that displays countries, major roads, cities, and airports for the entire world. It also includes a world elevation model for 3-D terrain viewing.
X ...

Scanned Method
These data, sometimes referred to as, contour-to-grid, is a way to use the contour map information to produce gridded elevation data. The USGS, as well as the U.S.

[data models] A representation of the world as a surface divided into a regular grid of cells.

OGR is the access portion of the GDAL library. It provides access to a multitude of data formats.
OGR ...

Vector: Vector data is the storage of X, Y, Z coordinates connected to form points, lines, areas, and volumes. Vector data is best suited to store discrete, well-defined data that can clearly be delimited.

Raster and
Spatial features in a GIS database are stored in either vector or raster form. GIS data structures adhering to a "vector" format store the position of map features as pairs of x, y (and sometimes z) coordinates.

Vector Data Structures
In computer Cartography and GIS, the vector data structures were first to be used because they were created simply from the digitizing tablets, they better represented the complex features like land parcels, ...

A coordinate-based data structure commonly used to represent map features. Each linear feature is represented as a list of ordered x,y coordinates.

In dealing with vector data an important concept is that of topology. Topology, derived from geometrical mathematics, is concerned with order, contiguity and relative position rather than with actual linear dimensions.

The file size for is usually much smaller for storage and sharing than raster data. Image or raster data can be 10 to 100 times larger than depending on the resolution.

Some scanners also use software to convert raster data to vector data. scratch file A temporary file holding intermediate data during an operation, such as when calculating arc intersections, or building feature topology.

[LINK] Raster data files can be manipulated quickly by the computer, but they are often less detailed an may be less visually appealing than files, which can approximate the appearance of more traditional hand-drafted maps.

However, the bulk of the introductory materials focus on vector data processing and applications with only minimal reference to grid-based map analysis.

A typical feature with respect to co-ordinate transformations is the possibility in ILWIS to match vector and raster data by an on-the-fly transformation of the .

Heads-up digitizing: This is similar to the manual digitization, but the raster scanned data is imported and laid below the vector data to be traced on the computer screen itself.

FORMATS
RASTER DATA FORMATS
IMAGE DATA
ATTRIBUTE DATA MODELS
SPATIAL DATA RELATIONSHIPS
TOPOLOGY
CHAPTER 3: DATA SOURCES
SOURCES OF DATA
DATA INPUT TECHNIQUES ...

Raster data such as the DOQs, rather than vector data, may be more effectively used for some applications. Much like the symbology on a topographic map, vector data tend to be more generalized (i.e.

One of the three types of spatial data in a GIS (the others being image and ). Raster data represents geographic space as a matrix of cells; map features are defined by numeric values assigned to the cells.

As you probably know, a DEM is a raster file, as opposed to the vector data that AutoCAD and other CAD programs normally handle. So the data structure is basically an array of elevation values arranged on a rectangular pattern.

Working with Mixed Raster/
Bentley Descartes allows immediate editing of raster and , reducing costs associated with data maintenance.

Supported vector data formats include ArcInfo coverages, E00, or SHP files, MapInfo MIF and TAB data, GML or XML files, SDTS data, Microstation DGN and others.

First theoretic results in the creation of 3D models, first practical results in voxel models for local mining systems;
Theoretical foundation of the quadtree (octree) indexing schemas; ...

Mathematical method to stretch or warp images to match existing vector data. Forces a digital map to fit a designated base.

coverage A digital version of a map forming the basic unit of storage in ARC/INFO.

For a vector dataset, go to the field properties, select the Shape field, and use the '...' button next to the Spatial Reference property to edit the spatial referencing system. Note that your GIS data layers have ab inherent coodinate system.

A product used for nautical navigation. ENC data is produced by nautical charting agencies throughout the world and uses the IHO (International Hydrographic Organization) S-57 standard for its database structure and attribution.

Coverage - (1) A digital map that forms the basic unit of vector data storage in Arc/Info. A coverage stores map data in the three basic forms of graphic elements, i.e. points, lines, polygons. (2) A single theme or layer of data (e.g.

The OpenLayers plugin is a great tool for presenting your layers on top of Google, Bing, Yahoo and OpenStreetMap thematic layers. To add the layer select Plugins
OpenLayers plugin ...