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Topography-based hydrological modelling in the Elbe drainage basin
The paper is focused on the applicability assessment of two models for large scale hydrological simulation, both of which are based on the topographic index concept.

The configuration of a surface, including its relief and the position of its natural and man-made features.

See Also: topographic map
[cartography] The study and mapping of land surfaces, including relief (relative positions and elevations) and the position of natural and constructed features.

is the study of Earth's surface features or those of other planets, moons, and asteroids.

topography: Shape or configuration of the land surface; represented in map form by contour lines
transformation : The process that converts coordinates from one coordinate system to another through translation, rotation, and scaling ...

: The features of the actual surface of the Earth, considered collectively according to their form, such as grassland, cultivated, desert, forest, swamp, etc.

Topography: The relief, elevation or shape of the earth in a given area.

-- n. The relief features of the Earth's surface, above and below sea level; the set of landforms in a region.

topography Loads a new raster or constant value to use as elevation (z values) for the current surface.

The configuration of the Earth's surface including relief and the position of natural features. Contours indicating lines of equal surface elevation are used to illustrate on a map.

Topography Maps
Cadastre Plans Microstation
Cadastre Plans Autocad
Topographic & Cadastral Mapping ...

refers to the surface characteristics with continuously changing value over an area such as elevations, aeromagnetics, noise levels, income levels, and pollution levels.

(PDF file size - 1.13mb)
2' contours, buildings, pavement, water features, property lines and annotation
color and black & white, with/without property lines and annotation
*1938 property lines are not available ...

The study and mapping of land surfaces, including relief (relative positions and elevations) and the position of natural and constructed features. Referenced by: Hydrography; Figure of the Earth; United States Geological Survey; U.S.

Topography is often mistakenly used as an alternative to relief but the two are somewhat different. Topography refers to the description or representation on a map of all features in a given area, both natural and man made.

The image on the left (above) is a false color radar image, while the image on the right shows data made while AirSar was being flown in interferometric mode.

The topography - the physical surface of the earth.
The Geoid - the level surface (also a physical reality).
The Ellipsoid - the mathematical surface for computations.

Other functions include illumination techniques to enhance display of elevation or relief, viewshed modeling to determine what areas can be seen from a specific point for appraising visual impacts, ...

While the topography is becoming more apparent, it is still better to display continuous data with a stretched, rather than classified, symbology.

The effect of on geoid
J. Ádám - Sz. Rózsa: The determination of terrain corrections of gravimetric measurements for the precise geoid determination. Proceedings of 11th Satellite Geodetic Seminar, pp. 80-87.

While the term topography describes the precise physical location and shape of geographical objects, the term topology is more concerned with the logical relationships between the position of those objects.

Topographic Map Map that displays through the use of elevation contour lines. Base elevation on these maps is usually sea-level.

The shape of Earth's surface or the geometry of landforms in a geographic area.
Trace Element:
An element that is present in very small quantities.
Traction: ...

topographic map See: map, topographic Configuration (relief) of the land surface; the graphic delineation or portrayal of that configuration in map form, as by contour lines; ...

AR 115-11. Army Topography. 30 November 1993.
AR 210-20. Master Planning for Army Installations. 30 July 1993.
AR 310-25. Dictionary of United States Army Terms. 15 October 1983.

- Configuration (relief) of the land surface; the graphic delineation or portrayal of that configuration in map form, as by contour lines; ...

Topography: The study of the relief of a given area on the Earth's surface, usually on a large scale, including both natural and man-made features.
Topology: The relative location of geographic phenomena independent of their exact position.

(Topology of ) pixel p. 29 smallest resolvable unit in an image; an area (usually rectangular) forming a part of a systematic, uniform division of a study area. Contraction of picture element. planar graph p.

Also referred to as laser altimetry or LiDAR; an active remote sensing technology that measures topography of the earth's surface, and landscape feature heights and intensity.

, man-made features), and cultural (e.g., land use, demographics) information in a common and accurate reference framework.

Merges horizontal and vertical geometry with 3D topography for application of design standards and typical sections
Define typical sections with horizontal and vertical geometry paths ...

3D rendering of a DEM of Tithonium Chasma on Mars A digital elevation model (DEM) is a digital representation of ground surface or terrain. ...

Helens topography.
Underlying all this is a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) that encapsulates the topographic undulations.

Karst appears when soluble layers of bedrock (carbonate rocks such as limestone, dolomite and marble) interact with the acids in the water.

We may need to visualize the topography of urban areas in three dimensions to plan for a night on the town or to respond to an emergency. We may need a 3d visualization of a historic urban scene to investigate a situation that doesn't exist anymore.

Here are some maps of Afghanistan showing the of the country. Good overlay material for Afghanistan is in short supply. The best I have found are Russian 1:50,000 and 1:200,000 topo maps, but they are not cheap.

For many mapping applications (like topography and certain kinds of navigation), a lesser constraint - fidelity of shape, or conformality, ...

As inputs into a GIS, the term base map is usually applied to those sources of information about relatively permanent features including , soil data, geology, cadastral divisions, and political divisions.

The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries, 1606-1968, New Jersey Bureau of Geology and Topography, 1969. The Mapping of New Jersey: The Men and the Art, Rutgers University Press,1973.

The text of the survey provides general information on the climate, geology, and of the area being covered, usually a county.

See also: See also: Model, Information, Geographic, GIS, Surface

GIS  Topographic Map  Topological Error

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