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Phosphodiester Bond

Biology  Phosphate ion  Phospholipid

Phosphodiester bond
The covalent bond joining the 3' hydroxyl of the sugar moiety of one (deoxy)ribonucleotide to the 5' hydroxyl of the adjacent sugar.

In a nucleic acid polymer, one of the covalent bonds in which a phosphate links two consecutive nucleotides. PICTURE
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) One of the enzymes working in gluconeogenesis.

Phosphodiester bond. A bond in which a phosphate group joins adjacent carbons through ester linkages. A condensation reaction between adjacent nucleotides results in a phosphodiester bond between 3' and 5' carbons in DNA and RNA.

A covalent bond in which two hydroxyl groups form ester linkages to the same phosphate group; joins adjacent nucleotides in DNA and RNA.
phosphoinositides ...

A phosphodiester bond forms between nucleotides to form nucleic acids.
Problem : Explain the significance of hydrogen bonds in DNA helices.

This sugar-phosphate-sugar bond is called a .
The process repeats so that a very long chain of nucleotides is made, a polynucleotide. Note that the bases protrude from the side of the chain.

A deoxynucleotide that lacks a 3' hydroxyl group, and is thus unable to form a 3'-5' phosphodiester bond necessary for chain elongation. Dideoxynucleotides are used in DNA sequencing and the treatment of viral diseases. (See Nucleotide.) didN.

Endonuclease -- an enzyme that breaks the internal s in a DNA molecule. Ethics -- the study of fundamental principles which defines values and determines moral duty and obligation.

Specifically, it involves creating a phosphodiester bond bond between the 3' hydroxyl of one nucleotide and the 5' phosphate of another. This reaction is usually catalyzed by a DNA ligase enzyme.

"The mechanism of the metal ion promoted cleavage of RNA s involves a general acid catalysis by the metal aquo ion on the departure of the leaving group". Perkin transactions 2: 1619-1626.

along a single-stranded molecule of DNA, recruiting free dNTP's (deoxy-nucleotide-triphosphates) to hydrogen bond with their appropriate complementary dNTP on the single strand (A with T and G with C), and to form a covalent phosphodiester bond with ...

We currently do not understand how the trigger loop interacts with the catalytic site to promote formation, ...

RNA enzymes can make phosphodiester bonds, suggesting that early RNA molecules could reproduce their genetic material.

(c) "Restriction enzymes cut covalent s of both strands, often in a staggered way, as indicated in the diagram. Since the target sequence usually occurs (by chance) many times in a long DNA molecule, an enzyme will make many cuts.

An enzyme which cleaves phosphodiester bonds that link adjacent nucleotides in DNA and/or RNA. An exonuclease progressively cleaves from the end of the substrate molecule; an endonuclease cleaves at internal sites within the substrate molecule.

- An enzyme that hydrolyzes internal s in a polynucleotide
- A sequence that enhances trasncription from the promoter of a eukaryotic gene. May be several thousand base-pairs away from the promoter.

in molecular biology, a hydrolytic cleavage of two opposing phosphodiester bonds in a double-stranded nucleic acid.
Compare: nick.
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In this reaction, the 5' phosphate of the NTP is lost and a [-C-O-P-O-C] is formed, but the 3' OH group remains, and can react with another NTP.
In this way, nucleotide polymers of unlimited length can be generated.

endonucleases - enzymes that hydrolyze internal phosphodiester bonds in a polynucleotide chain or nucleic acid molecule
glycogen - polysaccharide composed exclusively of glucose units used to store energy in animal cells ...

"p" indicates that "C" and "G" are connected by a .
CpG islands are often located around the promoters of housekeeping genes (which are essential for general cell functions) or other genes frequently expressed in a cell.

phosphodiesterase - enzyme that cleaves a phosphodiester bond, for example, that which cleaves cAMP into AMP.
phosphorylate - to add phosphate; e.g., to a protein to alter its function.

Endonuclease: A nuclease which cuts a nucleic acid molecule by cleaving the s between two internal residues. Best known examples are restriction endonucleases.

They showed that DNA is made up of two complementary, antiparallel strands of the bases Guanine, Adenine, Thymine, and Cytosine, covalently linked through phosphodiester bonds.

Nucleic acid A polymeric molecule composed of nucleotide monomers joined by s.

See also: See also: DNA, Nucleotide, Protein, Sequence, Molecule

Biology  Phosphate ion  Phospholipid

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