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group A group of organisms descended from a common ancestor. For example: your immediate family may be considered such a group, being descended from a common ancestral group (grandparents, etc.).

Monophyletic: Refers to a group of species that all have a single common ancestral species.
Morphology: The form and structure of an organism, in particular its outside features.

group (clade): Evolutionary assemblage of taxa that includes a common ancestor and all of its descendants. [See Avise, p. 36].
MRCA: Most recent common ancestor.

[edit] Monophyletic groups encouraged
Many cladists discourage the use of paraphyletic groups because they detract from cladisitcs' emphasis on clades (monophyletic groups).

(16) taxon (clade)
(a) The goal of systematics is to define taxa (a.k.a., clades)
(b) A taxon is one that includes the common ancestor species as well as all descendant species ...

monophyletic groups Groups that contain an ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor.
monophyletic origin A group of organisms that evolved from a single ancestral type.

, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic trees
Taxonomists following cladistic analysis place taxa into clades based on the derived character states that the taxa share. For example, a wing is a character.

The major monophyletic subterranean Leptoridini lineages are geographically structured in the mountain massifs of the Iberian Peninsula and the deduced associated divergence times reveal ancient divisions (Figure 1b).

Other eukaryotic kingdoms—the Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia—are each believed to be . That is, all plants evolved from one ancestral plant, all animals from one ancestral animal, and all fungi from one ancestral fungus.

A valid clade is monophyletic, consisting of an ancestral species and all its descendents.

The Protists as they have been used traditionally do not comprise a group. What lines of evidence support this statement?
Be able to list the features that support the statement that plants are descended from some group of green algae.

A species must be monophyletic and share one or more derived character. There are two meanings to monophyletic (de Queiroz and Donoghue 1988, Nelson 1989).

A true clade is considered to be , or containing one (and only one) complete evolutionary grouping deriving from one common ancestor. When a named group is found to contain more than one evolutionary line, it is termed polyphyletic.

See also: See also: Organ, Evolution, Animal, Animals, Species

Biology  Monohybrid cross  Monosaccharides

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