an excretory cell with a bunch of cilia that expel wastes to the outside; the actions of the cilia somewhat resemble a flickering flame, as in certain flatworms ...
A specialized cell at the blind end of a nephridium that ?lters body þuids.
flora Term collectively applied to all of the plants in an area. The botanical counterpart of fauna.
flame cell Specialized hollow excretory or osmoregulatory structure of one or several small cells containing a tuft of flagella (the "flame") and situated at the end of a minute tubule; connected tubules ultimately open to the outside.
The system functions in excretion and consists of a series of interconnecting canals that run length of the body on either side of the longitudinal axis and side branches of the canals, each ending in a .
Other materials that need to be removed from the system can be excreted through specialized cells called flame cells. Flame cells are the first appearance of excretory ducts in organisms.
The tubules have a ciliated at one end which maintains a current. Annelids have ciliated funnel-shaped nephridia which opens to the exterior. Mollusks and arthropods have similar nephridia but they are concentrated into kidneys.
See also: Tissue, Animals, Organ, Animal, Cells